Sunday, December 29, 2019

Food Shortages Due to Global Warming, Study Warns

Half of the world’s population could face severe food shortages by the end of this century as rising temperatures shorten the growing season in the tropics and subtropics, increase the risk of drought, and reduce the harvests of dietary staples such as rice and maize by 20 percent to 40 percent, according to a study published in the journal Science. Global warming is expected to affect agriculture in every part of the world but it will have a greater impact in the tropics and subtropics, where crops are less able to adapt to climate change and food shortages are already starting to occur due to rapid population growth. High Highs Scientists at Stanford University and the University of Washington, who worked on the study, discovered that by 2100 there is a 90 percent chance that the coolest temperatures in the tropics during the growing season will be higher than the hottest temperatures recorded in those regions through 2006. Even more temperate parts of the world can expect to see previously record-high temperatures become the norm. Higher Demand With the world population expected to double by the end of the century, the need for food will become increasingly urgent as rising temperatures force nations to retool their approach to agriculture, create new climate-resistant crops, and develop additional strategies to ensure an adequate food supply for their people. All of that could take decades, according to Rosamond Naylor, who is director of food security and the environment at Stanford. Meanwhile, people will have fewer and fewer places to turn for food when their local supplies begin to run dry. When all the signs point in the same direction, and in this case its a bad direction, you pretty much know whats going to happen, said David Battisti, the University of Washington scientist who led the study. Youre talking about hundreds of millions of additional people looking for food because they wont be able to find it where they find it now. Member of the International Panel on Climate Change agree. In their latest review of the food security issue, they point out that its not just crops: fisheries, weed control, food processing and distribution will all be affected. Edited by Frederic Beaudry.

Friday, December 20, 2019

Essay on Inhibition of Alcohol Dehydrogenase - 671 Words

Case 13 Inhibition of Alcohol Dehydrogenase Focus concept The inhibition of the alcohol dehydrogenase by a formamide compound is examined. Prerequisites C C Principles of enzyme kinetics Identification of inhibition via Lineweaver-Burk plots Background Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is the enzyme that is responsible for converting ethanol to acetaldehyde (the reaction is shown in Figure 13.1). It is the enzyme responsible for the metabolism of ethanol in the alcoholic beverages we consume. Five different isozymes of ADH have been identified, and it has been shown that the enzyme has a rather broad substrate specificity and can oxidize aldehydes as well as primary and secondary alcohols. For example, ADH can also oxidize methanol (wood†¦show more content†¦3. The authors of this study studied the ability of N-1,5-dimethylhexylformamide to inhibit mouse ADH1. The activity of the enzyme was measured in the absence of inhibitor, and in the presence of 1.0 :M inhibitor. The data are presented in Table 13.1. Table 13.1: Inhibition of mouse ADH1 by N,1-5-dimethylhexylformamide Ethanol Concentration, mM ADH1 velocity, ) NADH absorbance/min (without inhibitor) ADH1 velocity, ) NADH absorbance/min (with inhibitor) 0.20 0.036 0.022 0.25 0.042 0.024 0.36 0.048 0.027 0.60 0.065 0.029 2.00 0.075 0.033 2 a. What are the KM and Vmax values for ADH in the absence of inhibitor? in the presence of the inhibitor? b. What type of inhibitor is N-1,5-dimethylhexylformamide? Explain. c. Calculate the values of and/or ’, if they are significantly different from 1. What kind of inhibitor is N-1,5-dimethylhexylformamide? Explain. d. Calculate the Ki and/or Ki’ (whichever is appropriate) for N-1,5-dimethylhexylformamide (Hint: You can obtain these values from and ’). 4. The authors describe the mechanism of ADH as an â€Å"ordered bi-bi† mechanism. Give a written description of the mechanism, as shown in Figure 13.2. How does N-1,5dimethylhexylformamide inhibit the activity of the ADH enzyme? How does N-1,5dimethylhexylformamide differ from the â€Å"classic† inhibitors of this type that are described in our textbook? 5. The authors found that a class of compounds called pyrazoles were also inhibitors ofShow MoreRelatedThe Effect Of Ethanol On The Concentration Of Ethanol1675 Words   |  7 Pagesdetail must be done to either support or refute the information recorded. It would also be interesting to see where 2-propanol lies in the substrate affinity hierarchy and could prove very useful since there is a recorded Km of 1.4 x10-1 for the alcohol to use as a reference. Data on TFE is very unreliable because Km of the solution without the inhibitor is -1.02Ãâ€"ã€â€"10ã€â€"^(-4)M. 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Thursday, December 12, 2019

Group Counseling for Societal Levels †

Question: Discuss about theGroup Counseling for Societal Levels. Answer: The worlds people are growing faster than ever with longer life expectancies, generating unpredictable new challenges that require adaptation on individual, organizational, and societal levels (Bloom et al., 2011). It is because, as they grow older, they begin to develop mental decline, leading to disorders, like depression, paranoia, and anxiety, as well as inability to distinguish the advancing-age-consequences of mental illness (Aging and Geriatric issues, 2016). Group counseling is a way to cope with these problems, by promoting the capabilities of the elderly in controlling the feel of their lives and decision making powers (Capuzzi Fillion, 2016). This essay, therefore, analyze the various aspects of Group Counseling to understand whether it is really helpful to overcome the mental impairments of the elderly people. Evaluation of Group Counseling Group Counseling is a kind of therapy, by which people having similar experiences or problems, group together with a therapist, who runs the therapy session. The members of the group listen to others or talk themselves, thereby contributing towards solving their problems, such as addiction, bereavement, or mental illness (Group counselling, 2017). Groups can become helpful for those members who are troubled with loneliness, social discomfort and conflicts, neglect feelings, eating disorders, trusting issues, offending natures, reassurance needs, relationship and intimacy problems, traumatic experiences, and several other concerns. Many research studies and clinical evidences have already sanctified the effectiveness of Group counseling in alleviating impairments in the older people (UIOWA, 2017). Mostly, in group counseling, the treatment is initiated by a single therapist for more than one client at the same time. Sometimes, more than one therapist may lead the group session. Ideally, the strength of the group is put anywhere between 6 and 12, and during the session, the members listen to each other and give feedback in open. Such free expressions inspire each member to recreate the interaction patterns that have been challenging them outside the group. The environment of each session ensures a safe place to experiment the different options of treating in a more satisfying and effective way (Discover the Advantages of Group Therapy, 2015). The participation in the talk-listen-and-imbibe process will fix the responsibility of each involvement in the concerned member, who thinks what others say truly applies to him or her also. Group counseling affirms the participants that they are not alone, since other people also face the same problems, and there is always the opportunity to avail support. The receiving of the help is an essential part of a broader therapeutic alliance, while the act of giving itself is a matter of growth and learning. Group counseling helps sharing ones experiences, thereby developing communication and socialization skills in them. By virtue of this, they can improve the self awareness for withstanding any criticism from others (American Addiction Centers. (2017). Though the inexpensive Group Counseling removes inhibitions and perceived weaknesses of the group members, through their copying successful behaviors and actions of others, it involves certain negative aspects too. Its major flaw is the possibility of lack of attention of the older clients and their inability in keeping the confidentiality in groups. The chances of social loafing are also higher in this therapy, due to the presence of unmotivated individuals in the group and their avoidance of accountability. Moreover, group therapy will not be an appropriate treatment for persons, who are aggressive, psychotic, and extremely antisocial (American Addiction Centers (2017). Analysis of the Elderly Group Aging is a challenge for many individuals as they move into their later years, dreading the inevitable mobility and mental issues of old age. Older adults are confronted with the fear of mortality, when their friends, partners, or spouses die. The situation can become unbearable, making them vulnerable to isolation, leading to several illnesses, both physically and mentally (Aging and Geriatric Issues, 2016). Studies show that depression alone affects more than half of the world population over age 65. The elderly who are in the grip of depression usually view the situations only in a negative way, even when there exist positive interpretations that are valid and overriding their pre-notions (Zerhusen et al., 1991). The elderlys physiological decline affects the bodys normal functioning, which can lead to memory loss and other functional issues relating to vision, hearing, eating ability, and other chronic conditions. Change in socioeconomic status and lack of employment will create a feeling of low self-value in them. The result is total dependency on others, and the predictable neglect by the family members. Therefore, there is a need for counseling centers to meet the physical and psychological needs of the elderly (Lena et al., 2009), considering that 15% of adults who are aged 60 and above are suffering from mental conditions. The following statistics are an eye opener to the concerns of older adults (Aging and Geriatric Issues, 2016). Anxiety affects six percent of the aged adults Sexual dysfunction and sleep problems are on the increase in the elderly Seven percent of older adults are prone to depression Behavioral problems, like aggression, wandering, verbal outbursts, due to delirium The suicide rate in older people is higher than that of all other age groups. Two to five percent of the elderly over 65 years are dependent on drugs or alcohol By 2020 older adults dependency on alcohol and marijuana will increase drastically (Aging and Geriatric Issues, 2016). The above challenges can be overcome only through the interventions of professional people, who can make the older counterparts distinguish the changes from serious health conditions. Counselors and care givers can influence the thinking habits of the elderly, by using strategies to reduce the impact of the above problems. Though there are limitations, such efforts can induce the elderly to acquire the ability to adapt to the changes towards enjoying a quality life in their life ending years (Aging and Geriatric Issues, 2016). Several recent researches on the problems faced by the elderly have unequivocally established that most elderlies are easily exposed to physical and emotional issues, as well as economic insecurity in their lifes fag end. Many of the contingencies that are associated with ageing can be either prevented or delayed through willful interventions of therapists (Kalra, 2012). Evaluation of Group Counseling-Effectiveness on Elderlys Life Issues Life issues in the elderly are the problems they face in managing relationships, self esteem, and coping with loss, grief, and surviving disabilities. Due to the several changes in the physical, psychological, and social aspects, their self esteem and capacity to live are threatened, causing a feeling of loneliness and depression in them. Most often, such situations originate when they are left alone, without having any connections with community activity. As they grow older and older, they lose contact with their friends, and are unable to create new ones. Since aging is the closing period in the lifespan, a person will think of the past achievements before the life ends. In order to adjust to the accompanying changes, older people need to become flexible and adapt to such changes (Singh Misra, 2009). Group counseling can support the aging adults, who face difficulties in managing their emotions and finding new meaning in life. It can steer the affected older individuals to overcome their fears about death and grief over the lost friends or family members (Singh Misra, 2009). It provides advantages in psychosocial care, with elements of social support and cost effectiveness. The therapeutic benefits of Group Counseling differ from the other form of therapies, to inculcate hope and socialization in the elderly people. While it imparts information and altruism, it also recognizes the psychological experience of universality, offering corrective actions, interpersonal learning, imitative behavior, and group cohesiveness (Supiano Luptak, 2014). However, regarding the groups that include persons with trauma, there is a need to establish safety and trust, with particular interventions required for trauma, especially psycho-education. In order to address the special needs of the grieving older persons, group counseling is apt to give emotional support for coping loss and bringing back the persons to a comfortable setting. This will reduce isolation and induce relationship mentality for building up common bonds. Group Counseling can act as a platform for the older adults in sharing their experiences, such as listening and learning. It also provides them with the coping skills, while they earn and extend support to other members of the group (Supiano Luptak, 2014). Thus, group counseling can enhance the goal setting, skill building, and emotion self-monitoring in these people to fight away their grief and depression, displaying motivational cues of becoming supportive to the group members. In resolving grief and isolation, the counseling is an exemplary intervention for improving relationship issues between the participants and the deceased. The group therapy effectively addresses the feelings of attachment of the elderly people (Supiano Luptak, 2014). Compare and Contrast Group Counseling Against Individual Counseling Group counseling is an efficient form of counseling, with observable and predictive positive outcomes. In Group counseling, there is an involvement of simultaneous interaction of members with other people, within the physical environment of the session, which is intentionally outside the social network of family and friends. Most often, the members of the group experience the same issues, but at other times, the group may consist of members having different backgrounds and distinct problems. Generally, the therapist or facilitator will be a trained person in conducting group therapies, though they may lack any state or national licensing to perform such tasks (Tomasulo, 2010). The therapeutic alliance in group counselling is a binding between the counselor and the group members, and involves working of different therapeutic factors, including interpersonal feedback from the peers (Wesson, 2013). The facilitators of group counseling observe and guide only the dynamics that are present at the counseling time within the given environment, reflecting on the ongoing issues relating to the life of the members. These interactions between the members display only the performances that have evolved out of the family of origin and other relationships, but does not represent any interpersonal settings. The facilitator deciphers the interactions and derive the members feedback on their behaviors for initiating a corrective strategy. With the help of this strategy, the facilitator corrects the interaction of the members. The support groups do not always evaluate the elements of interaction, but only focus on the themes projected by the members. The group counseling is cost effective and the outcome is more or less equal to an individual counseling (Tomasulo, 2010). In individual counselling, the involvement is between a counselor and a single client to form a therapeutic alliance. There is full attention of the counselor, which is given at a scheduled time, and the client does not have any worry about any personality clashes, unlike group counseling. The client also gets more time with the counselor for resolving the problems, during the sessions. However, individual counseling is costlier than the group counseling, and the chances for the counselors additional advice or ideas are less. The type of feedback given depends on the ability of the counselor, while the interaction between the client and the counselor remains personal. The dynamics of the relationship will not be spontaneous and the therapeutic effect will not be immediate (SCRIBD, 2017). Invention Strategy to Overcome Isolation and Depression In order to address the elderlys life issue of isolation and depression the intervention strategy of Psychoanalytic counseling, based on Sigmund Freuds theory of psychoanalysis can be employed. By using this technique, the unconscious mind of the older adult can be explored for knowing how the unconscious mind controls the thoughts and behaviors. This insight will derive a resolution to the elderly, who is seeking the treatment. It involves looking at the experiences from the early childhood of the person to understand whether it has affected the life of the individual, becoming conducive to the present concerns. This is a prolonged type of treatment, for making deep rooted changes in the personality and emotional development of the person (Psychoanalytic therapy, 2017). The assumption is that the psychological problems are lying in the unconscious, and the cause to symptoms are dormant in the hidden disturbances, like the unresolved problems evolved during the growth process. The treatment digs out the repressed conflicts and bring them to the surface, so as to make the person understand the past events, which are affecting now. During the course of the counseling, the person will be allowed to talk freely to the counselor, in a safe environment. The counselor will listen to the problems and look for the critical events deciding the behavior, by employing the techniques of free association, therapeutic transference, and interpretation (Psychoanalytic therapy, 2017). Conclusion The longer life expectancy in the elderly is making them vulnerable to increased physical impairments and mental hardships. The most common mental problems they experience are isolation, relationship issues, depression, grief, stress, and fear of death. In order to alleviate these sufferings, the elderly must be allowed to participate in group counseling, as it can influence their thinking habits and behaviors, through employing appropriate strategies and techniques. Among the several clinical approaches, Freudian psychoanalytic theory-based-approach can resolve disorders, like isolation and depression, because it can act as an inside-out mechanism in the unconscious. The underlying past events of conflicts when revealed, the individual can realize the root causes and mend their ways, accordingly, to real calm and tranquility. References Aging and Geriatric Issues. (May 5,2016). Good Retrieved May 29, 2017 from American Addiction Centers. (2017). Group Therapy vs. Individual Therapy. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from treatment/group-individual/Evaluation of group counselling Bloom, D. E., Boersch-Supan,A., McGee, P., Seike, A. (2011). Population Aging: Facts, Challenges, and Responses. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from aging/WorkingPapers/2011/PGDA_WP_71.pdf Capuzzi, D., Fillion, N. G. (19 May 2016). Group Counseling for the Elderly. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, Volume 4, 1979 - Issue 3. Pages 148- 154. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from Discover the Advantages of Group Therapy. (2015). Counseling and Psychological services. Appalachian State University. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from Group counselling. (2017). Reach Retrieved May 29, 2017 from therapy/group-counselling/ Kalra, R. N. (2012). Age-old problem needs new solutions. The Hindu. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from Lena, A., Ashok, K., Padma, M., Kamath, V., Kamath, A. (2009). Health and Social Problems of the Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka. Indian J Community Med. 2009 Apr; 34(2): 131134. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from Psychoanalytic therapy. (2017). Counselling Directory. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from Singh, A., Misra, N. (2009). Loneliness, depression and sociability in old age.Industrial Psychiatry Journal,18(1), 5155. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from Supiano, K. P., Luptak, M. (2014). Complicated Grief in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Complicated Grief Group Therapy.Gerontologist2014; 54 (5): 840-856. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from Grief-in-Older-Adults-A-Randomized Tomasulo, D. J. (2010). What is the difference between individual and group therapy?Psychology Today. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from UIOWA. (2017). What is group counselling? University counselling service.University of Iowa. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from group-counseling/ Wesson, N. (2013). For Psychotherapists: Essential Differences Between Individual and Group Therapy. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from Zerhusen, J.D., Boyle, K., Wilson, W. (1991). Out of the darkness: group cognitive therapy for depressed elderly. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 1991 Sep;29(9):16-21. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from SCRIBD. (2017). The Difference Between Individual Counselling and Group Counselling. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from Individual-Counselling-and-Group-Counselling-Malaysia

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Computer System Knowledge Management System

Question: Describe about the Computer System for Knowledge Management System. Answer: 1: The Knowledge Management System is the system which includes creation, sharing, usage, and management of the knowledge and information required for the betterment of the organization. It is the key component of in the development of business strategy, human resource management, and information technology. The pillars of knowledge management are externalization and socialization. The function of the knowledge management system is to improve the performance of the employees, advantage of competition, innovation in technology, sharing of ideas, integration of tactics, and many more. It works on the principle of externalization, socialization, internalization, and combination. The functions performed by the knowledge management system can be categorised as below: Analysis of social network Capital invested on intellectual Community of practice Theory of information Science of complexity construction 2: Characteristics of the knowledge management system: Input: In the knowledge management system, the input is divided into four modules which are categorized as material, method, machine, and people. Output: The output of knowledge management system is to improve the performance of the employees, advantage of competition, innovation in technology, sharing of ideas, integration of tactics, and many more. Transformation: The process of transformation focuses on achieving the output from the input given to the system. In knowledge management system, this can be achieved by the interaction of the people with the other components of the system like machines, processes, and others. Boundary: it is the method by which the material is transformed into output. Environment: The environment is divided into two modules physical and managerial. The physical environment consists of cleanliness of surroundings and other factors which affects the working practices of the worker. The managerial environment works by the interaction with the management. 3: The feedback loop of knowledge management system consists of five processes: Managing processes: The aims and objectives of the organization should be clearly defined for creating the incentives for the business plan. Planning processes: The knowledge management system focuses on profiling the knowledge, creation of prerequisite knowledge, management of employees profile, and many more. Acquiring Processes: The knowledge management system focuses on acquiring knowledge necessary for the activities. Refinement Processes: This processes focuses on articulation and knowledge of the individual. Sharing Processes: In the sharing processes, the knowledge should be used for creating the infrastructure for the organization. By the implementation of feedback loop, it is used for analysing and identifying the complements. In the proposed system, closed feedback loop have been implemented because of the following reason: The meaningful resolution can be achieved by the implementation of the closed loop in the knowledge management system. The customer get satisfaction that their generated reviews have been taken into consideration (Thomsons, 2014) The knowledge of the employees, customers, stakeholders, and others can be improved The improvement in the knowledge helps in improving the benefits of the company The rating system helps in getting the fast feedback from the stakeholder Generation of free forms encourage the customer to provide their reviews on the product delivered by the company The process of prioritization should be applied on the feedback collected from the stakeholders (Astrom, 2008). 2: The outsourcing is the process by which company purchase products from the other company for cutting the cost. Outsourcing is commonly associated with component manufacturing, services performed by the computer programming, tax compliance, administration in training, services provided to the customer, product transportation, benefits related with the process of planning, and others. Advantages of Outsourcing the information system function: As the chief information officer of the organization, I predict three advantages from outsourcing the information system function which are as follows: Saving of cost: The outsourcing of the information system function helps in saving the extra expenditure and control on the cost. The outsourcing is usually carried out with the vendors who are specialized in the outsourced function. The fundamentals of outsourcing help in reducing the operational cost of the organization. Flexibility: With the implementation of outsourcing with the vendor, the flexibility can be achieved in areas of finance. The outsourced function helps in the sales of assets which in turn results into the increase in benefit of the company. Knowledge: Outsourcing opens the path for accessing the new technology which helps in the growth of the business. The company is not able to afford the computer experts therefore; it plays a major role in enhancing the functionality of the business in lower cost. 3: As the chief information officer of the organization, I predict three disadvantages from outsourcing the information system function which are as follows: Risk associated with the loss of confidential data: The outsourcing function like payroll, human resource, and recruitment may result in the exposure of confidential information of the organization to the third party. The problem of synchronization occurs in the deliverables: The correct selection results into correct deliverables. Sometimes the problem can occur with the selection of the third party to carry out the outsourcing function which results into extension in the delivery time, low quality product, responsibilities are not properly categorized, and many more. Poor Quality control: The wrong selection of the vendor results into the delivery of the low quality product which will affect loyalty of the company, trust of the customer, and the defect in the alignment of strategy. 4: The information system which is suitable for outsourcing to the third party for the benefit of the organization is outsourcing Management information system. The third part will develop the processes, mew methodologies, use of new technology, concept, and etc. in the direction of gaining maximum profit for the organization. The fundamentals of outsourcing help in reducing the operational cost of the organization. With the outsourcing information system, the establishment of performance metrics, consideration on the risk factors and development of the centralized structure in relation with architecture can takes place. Strategic partnership helps in the achievement of proper functioning of the operation related with management information system. The focus can also be given on activities like operation related with the data centres, application related with the desktop support, telecommunication, and backup data (Brown, 2015). The fundamentals of outsourcing help in reducing the op erational cost of the organization. Learning analytics is the process of measuring, collecting, analysing, and reporting about data from the data collected from the student in various forms. The benefits which can arise to the student with the learning analytics are as follows: It help in reflecting the achievements of the individuals and their behaviour in the relationship with others Helps in predicting the student who need extra attention and support Helps in developing the intervention plan Helps in taking efficient and effective decision More useful information can be acquired by using the technology of customizable measurement The purpose of prediction can be solved Adaptation of the student in new learning path Visualization of information for providing learning data. Experience of the student can be improved Real time insight can be provided for increasing the learning capability of the student The benefits which can arise to the university with the learning analytics are as follows: Saving of cost by implementing the efficient practices Helps in providing better retention to the student Helps in predicting the student who need extra attention and support Helps in developing the intervention plan The content of the course can be improved by using new curriculum More useful information can be acquired by using the technology of customizable measurement Continuous feedback can be achieved from the data collected from the classroom (Ferguson, 2012) The teaching and the learning capability can be improved The differentiation in the substantial information can be carried out Initiatives can be taken for integrating the strategic plans The negative outcomes of the learning analytics are as follows: The ownership of learning is not taken by the student The learner or student could not match their skills with the innovation of new technologies applied in the campus The overloading of the content can be done by combining the new curriculum with the older one. The teachers are not able to change themselves with the changing and the new innovative technologies. The students are not interested in learning online components The design support is insufficient to provide relevant information to the teachers. Yes, the collection and analysis of data is ethical because it helps in monitoring and identifying the need of the students, predictive modelling technique can be used for identifying the characteristics or behaviour of the student, and also it helps in developing the evaluation technique which results in the improvement in the learning capability of the student. The confidential data which is stored in the database of the university should be used in the right direction in relation with medical or health condition, religion or belief of the student, sexual orientation, and against the offences. This information helps in the proper monitoring and evaluation of the student behaviour (Michael, 2013). The system of virtual learning environment can be generated on the basis of the information collected by the record of the student (Mollet, 2013). References: Ferguson, R. 2012.Learning Analytics: Drivers, Development, And Challenges. Ebook. 1st ed. Michael, D. 2013.A Dynamic topic model of learning analytics research. Ebook. 1st ed. Mollet, J. 2013.Ethical issues in social science research. Ebook. 1st ed. Thomsons, D. 2014.The Feedback loop. Ebook. 1st ed. Astrom, K. 2008.Feedback System: An introduction for scientist and engineers. Ebook. 1st ed. Brown, L. 2015.Global outsourcing for professional services. Ebook. 1st ed.