Sunday, December 29, 2019
Half of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population could face severe food shortages by the end of this century as rising temperatures shorten the growing season in the tropics and subtropics, increase the risk of drought, and reduce the harvests of dietary staples such as rice and maize by 20 percent to 40 percent, according to a study published in the journal Science. Global warming is expected to affect agriculture in every part of the world but it will have a greater impact in the tropics and subtropics, where crops are less able to adapt to climate change and food shortages are already starting to occur due to rapid population growth. High Highs Scientists at Stanford University and the University of Washington, who worked on the study, discovered that by 2100 there is a 90 percent chance that the coolest temperatures in the tropics during the growing season will be higher than the hottest temperatures recorded in those regions through 2006. Even more temperate parts of the world can expect to see previously record-high temperatures become the norm. Higher Demand With the world population expected to double by the end of the century, the need for food will become increasingly urgent as rising temperatures force nations to retool their approach to agriculture, create new climate-resistant crops, and develop additional strategies to ensure an adequate food supply for their people. All of that could take decades, according to Rosamond Naylor, who is director of food security and the environment at Stanford. Meanwhile, people will have fewer and fewer places to turn for food when their local supplies begin to run dry. When all the signs point in the same direction, and in this case its a bad direction, you pretty much know whats going to happen, said David Battisti, the University of Washington scientist who led the study. Youre talking about hundreds of millions of additional people looking for food because they wont be able to find it where they find it now. Member of the International Panel on Climate Change agree. In their latest review of the food security issue, they point out that its not just crops: fisheries, weed control, food processing and distribution will all be affected. Edited by Frederic Beaudry.
Friday, December 20, 2019
Case 13 Inhibition of Alcohol Dehydrogenase Focus concept The inhibition of the alcohol dehydrogenase by a formamide compound is examined. Prerequisites C C Principles of enzyme kinetics Identification of inhibition via Lineweaver-Burk plots Background Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is the enzyme that is responsible for converting ethanol to acetaldehyde (the reaction is shown in Figure 13.1). It is the enzyme responsible for the metabolism of ethanol in the alcoholic beverages we consume. Five different isozymes of ADH have been identified, and it has been shown that the enzyme has a rather broad substrate specificity and can oxidize aldehydes as well as primary and secondary alcohols. For example, ADH can also oxidize methanol (woodÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦3. The authors of this study studied the ability of N-1,5-dimethylhexylformamide to inhibit mouse ADH1. The activity of the enzyme was measured in the absence of inhibitor, and in the presence of 1.0 :M inhibitor. The data are presented in Table 13.1. Table 13.1: Inhibition of mouse ADH1 by N,1-5-dimethylhexylformamide Ethanol Concentration, mM ADH1 velocity, ) NADH absorbance/min (without inhibitor) ADH1 velocity, ) NADH absorbance/min (with inhibitor) 0.20 0.036 0.022 0.25 0.042 0.024 0.36 0.048 0.027 0.60 0.065 0.029 2.00 0.075 0.033 2 a. What are the KM and Vmax values for ADH in the absence of inhibitor? in the presence of the inhibitor? b. What type of inhibitor is N-1,5-dimethylhexylformamide? Explain. c. Calculate the values of and/or Ã¢â¬â¢, if they are significantly different from 1. What kind of inhibitor is N-1,5-dimethylhexylformamide? Explain. d. Calculate the Ki and/or KiÃ¢â¬â¢ (whichever is appropriate) for N-1,5-dimethylhexylformamide (Hint: You can obtain these values from and Ã¢â¬â¢). 4. The authors describe the mechanism of ADH as an Ã¢â¬Å"ordered bi-biÃ¢â¬ mechanism. Give a written description of the mechanism, as shown in Figure 13.2. How does N-1,5dimethylhexylformamide inhibit the activity of the ADH enzyme? How does N-1,5dimethylhexylformamide differ from the Ã¢â¬Å"classicÃ¢â¬ inhibitors of this type that are described in our textbook? 5. The authors found that a class of compounds called pyrazoles were also inhibitors ofShow MoreRelatedThe Effect Of Ethanol On The Concentration Of Ethanol1675 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdetail must be done to either support or refute the information recorded. It would also be interesting to see where 2-propanol lies in the substrate affinity hierarchy and could prove very useful since there is a recorded Km of 1.4 x10-1 for the alcohol to use as a reference. Data on TFE is very unreliable because Km of the solution without the inhibitor is -1.02Ãâ"Ã£â¬â"10Ã£â¬â"^(-4)M. This data point makes no sense because absorbance data on YADH has shown a positive Km for all absorbance runs except forRead MoreAlcohol And The Central Nervous System1252 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAlcohol, like many other drugs, is dose dependent, readily absorbed, and widely distributed. As a result, alcohol affects many organ systems of the body, including the central nervous system (CNS). Alcohol is easily absorbed, is soluble across all biological membranes, and does not bind to any plasma proteins. There is no place in our bodies where alcohol cannot reach. Alcohol absorption occurs between 80-90 minutes, and is affected by whether or not someone has eaten, as this will affect theRead MoreThe Effects Of Drug And Alcohol On Nervous Tissue1619 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesindividuals that make good decisions for the most part and they just had a small issue with their health that can be resolved. 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The type 1 isoform 11Ã ²-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11Ã ²-HSD1) is a low affinity NADPH-dependent reductase that catalyzes the conversion of hormonallyRead MoreTypes Of A Secondary Fermentation1901 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesmalts have been devoured by the yeast, and the alcohol content has been added. The brew is then transferred to a keg, where sugar is added, this allows the brew to go through what is called a secondary fermentation. This increase alcohol percentage as well as giving the brew the common bubbly beer qualities. Process breakdown: Malts are the source of beerÃ¢â¬â¢s colour and taste as well as the sugar compound which feeds the yeast and gives beer its alcohol content. Barley is the most common source usedRead More Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Essay1951 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesFetal Alcohol Syndrome Many studies have established that a developing organism is susceptible to exogenous and endogenous factors during certain stage of the organismÃ¢â¬â¢s development. The effects of ethyl alcohol or ethanol on the developing fetus, which manifest a variety of characteristic abnormalities, are collectively called Fetal alcohol Syndrome. Ethanol exposure to the fetus causes various malformation ranging from the cellular to the organismic levels with the eventual results frequentlyRead MoreEssay about Molecular Biology and Ldh6192 Words Ã |Ã 25 PagesIsolation and Characterization of Avian Lactate Dehydrogenase To whom correspondence should be addressed Sylvia DaoudKinze and James Proestes, Department of Biochemistry, Portland State University Professor, Portland Oregon, 97207-0751; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com ------------------------------------------------- Keywords: Lactate, Dehydrogenase, Avian, Bradford Assay, Affinity Column Background: Lactate Dehydrogenase also known as LDH is an important NADH dependentRead MoreEssay On Sodium Chloride1303 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrequired for the inhibition of Aspergillus sp. (Martin et al. 2009, Shahzad et al. 2014). The concentration of curcumin which was effective on killing zoospores was tested on sporangia and biofilm-associated cells for their viability. Even though the viabilities of the sporangia and biofilm-associated cells were higher than the planktonic cells, the numbers were not significantly different except for sporangia (p0.001). This may be due to the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme in sporangiaRead MoreSubstance Abuse And Alcohol Abuse3037 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesSubstance abuse is use of a substance (drug) or alcohol in which the person consumes the substance/alcohol in amounts or with different methods which are harmful for themselves or others. Substance abuse and addictions are run in families. Alcohol drinking can be defined in many types as following- Social drinking is defined as occasional drinking in a social setting without an intention to get drunk. 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Thursday, December 12, 2019
Question: Discuss about theGroup Counseling for Societal Levels. Answer: The worlds people are growing faster than ever with longer life expectancies, generating unpredictable new challenges that require adaptation on individual, organizational, and societal levels (Bloom et al., 2011). It is because, as they grow older, they begin to develop mental decline, leading to disorders, like depression, paranoia, and anxiety, as well as inability to distinguish the advancing-age-consequences of mental illness (Aging and Geriatric issues, 2016). Group counseling is a way to cope with these problems, by promoting the capabilities of the elderly in controlling the feel of their lives and decision making powers (Capuzzi Fillion, 2016). This essay, therefore, analyze the various aspects of Group Counseling to understand whether it is really helpful to overcome the mental impairments of the elderly people. Evaluation of Group Counseling Group Counseling is a kind of therapy, by which people having similar experiences or problems, group together with a therapist, who runs the therapy session. The members of the group listen to others or talk themselves, thereby contributing towards solving their problems, such as addiction, bereavement, or mental illness (Group counselling, 2017). Groups can become helpful for those members who are troubled with loneliness, social discomfort and conflicts, neglect feelings, eating disorders, trusting issues, offending natures, reassurance needs, relationship and intimacy problems, traumatic experiences, and several other concerns. Many research studies and clinical evidences have already sanctified the effectiveness of Group counseling in alleviating impairments in the older people (UIOWA, 2017). Mostly, in group counseling, the treatment is initiated by a single therapist for more than one client at the same time. Sometimes, more than one therapist may lead the group session. Ideally, the strength of the group is put anywhere between 6 and 12, and during the session, the members listen to each other and give feedback in open. Such free expressions inspire each member to recreate the interaction patterns that have been challenging them outside the group. The environment of each session ensures a safe place to experiment the different options of treating in a more satisfying and effective way (Discover the Advantages of Group Therapy, 2015). The participation in the talk-listen-and-imbibe process will fix the responsibility of each involvement in the concerned member, who thinks what others say truly applies to him or her also. Group counseling affirms the participants that they are not alone, since other people also face the same problems, and there is always the opportunity to avail support. The receiving of the help is an essential part of a broader therapeutic alliance, while the act of giving itself is a matter of growth and learning. Group counseling helps sharing ones experiences, thereby developing communication and socialization skills in them. By virtue of this, they can improve the self awareness for withstanding any criticism from others (American Addiction Centers. (2017). Though the inexpensive Group Counseling removes inhibitions and perceived weaknesses of the group members, through their copying successful behaviors and actions of others, it involves certain negative aspects too. Its major flaw is the possibility of lack of attention of the older clients and their inability in keeping the confidentiality in groups. The chances of social loafing are also higher in this therapy, due to the presence of unmotivated individuals in the group and their avoidance of accountability. Moreover, group therapy will not be an appropriate treatment for persons, who are aggressive, psychotic, and extremely antisocial (American Addiction Centers (2017). Analysis of the Elderly Group Aging is a challenge for many individuals as they move into their later years, dreading the inevitable mobility and mental issues of old age. Older adults are confronted with the fear of mortality, when their friends, partners, or spouses die. The situation can become unbearable, making them vulnerable to isolation, leading to several illnesses, both physically and mentally (Aging and Geriatric Issues, 2016). Studies show that depression alone affects more than half of the world population over age 65. The elderly who are in the grip of depression usually view the situations only in a negative way, even when there exist positive interpretations that are valid and overriding their pre-notions (Zerhusen et al., 1991). The elderlys physiological decline affects the bodys normal functioning, which can lead to memory loss and other functional issues relating to vision, hearing, eating ability, and other chronic conditions. Change in socioeconomic status and lack of employment will create a feeling of low self-value in them. The result is total dependency on others, and the predictable neglect by the family members. Therefore, there is a need for counseling centers to meet the physical and psychological needs of the elderly (Lena et al., 2009), considering that 15% of adults who are aged 60 and above are suffering from mental conditions. The following statistics are an eye opener to the concerns of older adults (Aging and Geriatric Issues, 2016). Anxiety affects six percent of the aged adults Sexual dysfunction and sleep problems are on the increase in the elderly Seven percent of older adults are prone to depression Behavioral problems, like aggression, wandering, verbal outbursts, due to delirium The suicide rate in older people is higher than that of all other age groups. Two to five percent of the elderly over 65 years are dependent on drugs or alcohol By 2020 older adults dependency on alcohol and marijuana will increase drastically (Aging and Geriatric Issues, 2016). The above challenges can be overcome only through the interventions of professional people, who can make the older counterparts distinguish the changes from serious health conditions. Counselors and care givers can influence the thinking habits of the elderly, by using strategies to reduce the impact of the above problems. Though there are limitations, such efforts can induce the elderly to acquire the ability to adapt to the changes towards enjoying a quality life in their life ending years (Aging and Geriatric Issues, 2016). Several recent researches on the problems faced by the elderly have unequivocally established that most elderlies are easily exposed to physical and emotional issues, as well as economic insecurity in their lifes fag end. Many of the contingencies that are associated with ageing can be either prevented or delayed through willful interventions of therapists (Kalra, 2012). Evaluation of Group Counseling-Effectiveness on Elderlys Life Issues Life issues in the elderly are the problems they face in managing relationships, self esteem, and coping with loss, grief, and surviving disabilities. Due to the several changes in the physical, psychological, and social aspects, their self esteem and capacity to live are threatened, causing a feeling of loneliness and depression in them. Most often, such situations originate when they are left alone, without having any connections with community activity. As they grow older and older, they lose contact with their friends, and are unable to create new ones. Since aging is the closing period in the lifespan, a person will think of the past achievements before the life ends. In order to adjust to the accompanying changes, older people need to become flexible and adapt to such changes (Singh Misra, 2009). Group counseling can support the aging adults, who face difficulties in managing their emotions and finding new meaning in life. It can steer the affected older individuals to overcome their fears about death and grief over the lost friends or family members (Singh Misra, 2009). It provides advantages in psychosocial care, with elements of social support and cost effectiveness. The therapeutic benefits of Group Counseling differ from the other form of therapies, to inculcate hope and socialization in the elderly people. While it imparts information and altruism, it also recognizes the psychological experience of universality, offering corrective actions, interpersonal learning, imitative behavior, and group cohesiveness (Supiano Luptak, 2014). However, regarding the groups that include persons with trauma, there is a need to establish safety and trust, with particular interventions required for trauma, especially psycho-education. In order to address the special needs of the grieving older persons, group counseling is apt to give emotional support for coping loss and bringing back the persons to a comfortable setting. This will reduce isolation and induce relationship mentality for building up common bonds. Group Counseling can act as a platform for the older adults in sharing their experiences, such as listening and learning. It also provides them with the coping skills, while they earn and extend support to other members of the group (Supiano Luptak, 2014). Thus, group counseling can enhance the goal setting, skill building, and emotion self-monitoring in these people to fight away their grief and depression, displaying motivational cues of becoming supportive to the group members. In resolving grief and isolation, the counseling is an exemplary intervention for improving relationship issues between the participants and the deceased. The group therapy effectively addresses the feelings of attachment of the elderly people (Supiano Luptak, 2014). Compare and Contrast Group Counseling Against Individual Counseling Group counseling is an efficient form of counseling, with observable and predictive positive outcomes. In Group counseling, there is an involvement of simultaneous interaction of members with other people, within the physical environment of the session, which is intentionally outside the social network of family and friends. Most often, the members of the group experience the same issues, but at other times, the group may consist of members having different backgrounds and distinct problems. Generally, the therapist or facilitator will be a trained person in conducting group therapies, though they may lack any state or national licensing to perform such tasks (Tomasulo, 2010). The therapeutic alliance in group counselling is a binding between the counselor and the group members, and involves working of different therapeutic factors, including interpersonal feedback from the peers (Wesson, 2013). The facilitators of group counseling observe and guide only the dynamics that are present at the counseling time within the given environment, reflecting on the ongoing issues relating to the life of the members. These interactions between the members display only the performances that have evolved out of the family of origin and other relationships, but does not represent any interpersonal settings. The facilitator deciphers the interactions and derive the members feedback on their behaviors for initiating a corrective strategy. With the help of this strategy, the facilitator corrects the interaction of the members. The support groups do not always evaluate the elements of interaction, but only focus on the themes projected by the members. The group counseling is cost effective and the outcome is more or less equal to an individual counseling (Tomasulo, 2010). In individual counselling, the involvement is between a counselor and a single client to form a therapeutic alliance. There is full attention of the counselor, which is given at a scheduled time, and the client does not have any worry about any personality clashes, unlike group counseling. The client also gets more time with the counselor for resolving the problems, during the sessions. However, individual counseling is costlier than the group counseling, and the chances for the counselors additional advice or ideas are less. The type of feedback given depends on the ability of the counselor, while the interaction between the client and the counselor remains personal. The dynamics of the relationship will not be spontaneous and the therapeutic effect will not be immediate (SCRIBD, 2017). Invention Strategy to Overcome Isolation and Depression In order to address the elderlys life issue of isolation and depression the intervention strategy of Psychoanalytic counseling, based on Sigmund Freuds theory of psychoanalysis can be employed. By using this technique, the unconscious mind of the older adult can be explored for knowing how the unconscious mind controls the thoughts and behaviors. This insight will derive a resolution to the elderly, who is seeking the treatment. It involves looking at the experiences from the early childhood of the person to understand whether it has affected the life of the individual, becoming conducive to the present concerns. This is a prolonged type of treatment, for making deep rooted changes in the personality and emotional development of the person (Psychoanalytic therapy, 2017). The assumption is that the psychological problems are lying in the unconscious, and the cause to symptoms are dormant in the hidden disturbances, like the unresolved problems evolved during the growth process. The treatment digs out the repressed conflicts and bring them to the surface, so as to make the person understand the past events, which are affecting now. During the course of the counseling, the person will be allowed to talk freely to the counselor, in a safe environment. The counselor will listen to the problems and look for the critical events deciding the behavior, by employing the techniques of free association, therapeutic transference, and interpretation (Psychoanalytic therapy, 2017). Conclusion The longer life expectancy in the elderly is making them vulnerable to increased physical impairments and mental hardships. The most common mental problems they experience are isolation, relationship issues, depression, grief, stress, and fear of death. In order to alleviate these sufferings, the elderly must be allowed to participate in group counseling, as it can influence their thinking habits and behaviors, through employing appropriate strategies and techniques. Among the several clinical approaches, Freudian psychoanalytic theory-based-approach can resolve disorders, like isolation and depression, because it can act as an inside-out mechanism in the unconscious. The underlying past events of conflicts when revealed, the individual can realize the root causes and mend their ways, accordingly, to real calm and tranquility. References Aging and Geriatric Issues. (May 5,2016). Good therapy.org. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from https://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/issues/aging American Addiction Centers. (2017). Group Therapy vs. Individual Therapy. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from https://americanaddictioncenters.org/therapy- treatment/group-individual/Evaluation of group counselling Bloom, D. E., Boersch-Supan,A., McGee, P., Seike, A. (2011). Population Aging: Facts, Challenges, and Responses. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/program-on-the-global-demography-of- aging/WorkingPapers/2011/PGDA_WP_71.pdf Capuzzi, D., Fillion, N. G. (19 May 2016). Group Counseling for the Elderly. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, Volume 4, 1979 - Issue 3. Pages 148- 154. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15496295.1979.11728574 Discover the Advantages of Group Therapy. (2015). Counseling and Psychological services. Appalachian State University. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from https://counseling.appstate.edu/pagesmith/158 Group counselling. (2017). Reach Out.com. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from https://ie.reachout.com/getting-help-2/face-to-face-help/types-of- therapy/group-counselling/ Kalra, R. N. (2012). Age-old problem needs new solutions. The Hindu. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/open-page/ageold-problem-needs-new-solutions/article3291411.ece Lena, A., Ashok, K., Padma, M., Kamath, V., Kamath, A. (2009). Health and Social Problems of the Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka. Indian J Community Med. 2009 Apr; 34(2): 131134. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2781120/ Psychoanalytic therapy. (2017). Counselling Directory. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from https://www.counselling-directory.org.uk/psychoanalytical.html Singh, A., Misra, N. (2009). Loneliness, depression and sociability in old age.Industrial Psychiatry Journal,18(1), 5155. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from https://doi.org/10.4103/0972-6748.57861 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3016701/ Supiano, K. P., Luptak, M. (2014). Complicated Grief in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Complicated Grief Group Therapy.Gerontologist2014; 54 (5): 840-856. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from https://academic.oup.com/gerontologist/article/54/5/840/626397/Complicated- Grief-in-Older-Adults-A-Randomized Tomasulo, D. J. (2010). What is the difference between individual and group therapy?Psychology Today. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-healing-crowd/201012/what-is-the-difference-between-individual-and-group-therapy UIOWA. (2017). What is group counselling? University counselling service.University of Iowa. Retrieved May 29, 2017 fromhttps://counseling.uiowa.edu/services/counseling/group-counseling/what-is- group-counseling/ Wesson, N. (2013). For Psychotherapists: Essential Differences Between Individual and Group Therapy. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from https://wespsych.com/individual-vs-group-psychotherapy/ Zerhusen, J.D., Boyle, K., Wilson, W. (1991). Out of the darkness: group cognitive therapy for depressed elderly. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 1991 Sep;29(9):16-21. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1941727?dopt=Abstract SCRIBD. (2017). The Difference Between Individual Counselling and Group Counselling. Retrieved May 29, 2017 fromhttps://www.scribd.com/document/297986544/The-Difference-Between- Individual-Counselling-and-Group-Counselling-Malaysia
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Describe about the Computer System for Knowledge Management System. Answer: 1: The Knowledge Management System is the system which includes creation, sharing, usage, and management of the knowledge and information required for the betterment of the organization. It is the key component of in the development of business strategy, human resource management, and information technology. The pillars of knowledge management are externalization and socialization. The function of the knowledge management system is to improve the performance of the employees, advantage of competition, innovation in technology, sharing of ideas, integration of tactics, and many more. It works on the principle of externalization, socialization, internalization, and combination. The functions performed by the knowledge management system can be categorised as below: Analysis of social network Capital invested on intellectual Community of practice Theory of information Science of complexity construction 2: Characteristics of the knowledge management system: Input: In the knowledge management system, the input is divided into four modules which are categorized as material, method, machine, and people. Output: The output of knowledge management system is to improve the performance of the employees, advantage of competition, innovation in technology, sharing of ideas, integration of tactics, and many more. Transformation: The process of transformation focuses on achieving the output from the input given to the system. In knowledge management system, this can be achieved by the interaction of the people with the other components of the system like machines, processes, and others. Boundary: it is the method by which the material is transformed into output. Environment: The environment is divided into two modules physical and managerial. The physical environment consists of cleanliness of surroundings and other factors which affects the working practices of the worker. The managerial environment works by the interaction with the management. 3: The feedback loop of knowledge management system consists of five processes: Managing processes: The aims and objectives of the organization should be clearly defined for creating the incentives for the business plan. Planning processes: The knowledge management system focuses on profiling the knowledge, creation of prerequisite knowledge, management of employees profile, and many more. Acquiring Processes: The knowledge management system focuses on acquiring knowledge necessary for the activities. Refinement Processes: This processes focuses on articulation and knowledge of the individual. Sharing Processes: In the sharing processes, the knowledge should be used for creating the infrastructure for the organization. By the implementation of feedback loop, it is used for analysing and identifying the complements. In the proposed system, closed feedback loop have been implemented because of the following reason: The meaningful resolution can be achieved by the implementation of the closed loop in the knowledge management system. The customer get satisfaction that their generated reviews have been taken into consideration (Thomsons, 2014) The knowledge of the employees, customers, stakeholders, and others can be improved The improvement in the knowledge helps in improving the benefits of the company The rating system helps in getting the fast feedback from the stakeholder Generation of free forms encourage the customer to provide their reviews on the product delivered by the company The process of prioritization should be applied on the feedback collected from the stakeholders (Astrom, 2008). 2: The outsourcing is the process by which company purchase products from the other company for cutting the cost. Outsourcing is commonly associated with component manufacturing, services performed by the computer programming, tax compliance, administration in training, services provided to the customer, product transportation, benefits related with the process of planning, and others. Advantages of Outsourcing the information system function: As the chief information officer of the organization, I predict three advantages from outsourcing the information system function which are as follows: Saving of cost: The outsourcing of the information system function helps in saving the extra expenditure and control on the cost. The outsourcing is usually carried out with the vendors who are specialized in the outsourced function. The fundamentals of outsourcing help in reducing the operational cost of the organization. Flexibility: With the implementation of outsourcing with the vendor, the flexibility can be achieved in areas of finance. The outsourced function helps in the sales of assets which in turn results into the increase in benefit of the company. Knowledge: Outsourcing opens the path for accessing the new technology which helps in the growth of the business. The company is not able to afford the computer experts therefore; it plays a major role in enhancing the functionality of the business in lower cost. 3: As the chief information officer of the organization, I predict three disadvantages from outsourcing the information system function which are as follows: Risk associated with the loss of confidential data: The outsourcing function like payroll, human resource, and recruitment may result in the exposure of confidential information of the organization to the third party. The problem of synchronization occurs in the deliverables: The correct selection results into correct deliverables. Sometimes the problem can occur with the selection of the third party to carry out the outsourcing function which results into extension in the delivery time, low quality product, responsibilities are not properly categorized, and many more. Poor Quality control: The wrong selection of the vendor results into the delivery of the low quality product which will affect loyalty of the company, trust of the customer, and the defect in the alignment of strategy. 4: The information system which is suitable for outsourcing to the third party for the benefit of the organization is outsourcing Management information system. The third part will develop the processes, mew methodologies, use of new technology, concept, and etc. in the direction of gaining maximum profit for the organization. The fundamentals of outsourcing help in reducing the operational cost of the organization. With the outsourcing information system, the establishment of performance metrics, consideration on the risk factors and development of the centralized structure in relation with architecture can takes place. Strategic partnership helps in the achievement of proper functioning of the operation related with management information system. The focus can also be given on activities like operation related with the data centres, application related with the desktop support, telecommunication, and backup data (Brown, 2015). The fundamentals of outsourcing help in reducing the op erational cost of the organization. Learning analytics is the process of measuring, collecting, analysing, and reporting about data from the data collected from the student in various forms. The benefits which can arise to the student with the learning analytics are as follows: It help in reflecting the achievements of the individuals and their behaviour in the relationship with others Helps in predicting the student who need extra attention and support Helps in developing the intervention plan Helps in taking efficient and effective decision More useful information can be acquired by using the technology of customizable measurement The purpose of prediction can be solved Adaptation of the student in new learning path Visualization of information for providing learning data. Experience of the student can be improved Real time insight can be provided for increasing the learning capability of the student The benefits which can arise to the university with the learning analytics are as follows: Saving of cost by implementing the efficient practices Helps in providing better retention to the student Helps in predicting the student who need extra attention and support Helps in developing the intervention plan The content of the course can be improved by using new curriculum More useful information can be acquired by using the technology of customizable measurement Continuous feedback can be achieved from the data collected from the classroom (Ferguson, 2012) The teaching and the learning capability can be improved The differentiation in the substantial information can be carried out Initiatives can be taken for integrating the strategic plans The negative outcomes of the learning analytics are as follows: The ownership of learning is not taken by the student The learner or student could not match their skills with the innovation of new technologies applied in the campus The overloading of the content can be done by combining the new curriculum with the older one. The teachers are not able to change themselves with the changing and the new innovative technologies. The students are not interested in learning online components The design support is insufficient to provide relevant information to the teachers. Yes, the collection and analysis of data is ethical because it helps in monitoring and identifying the need of the students, predictive modelling technique can be used for identifying the characteristics or behaviour of the student, and also it helps in developing the evaluation technique which results in the improvement in the learning capability of the student. The confidential data which is stored in the database of the university should be used in the right direction in relation with medical or health condition, religion or belief of the student, sexual orientation, and against the offences. This information helps in the proper monitoring and evaluation of the student behaviour (Michael, 2013). The system of virtual learning environment can be generated on the basis of the information collected by the record of the student (Mollet, 2013). References: Ferguson, R. 2012.Learning Analytics: Drivers, Development, And Challenges. Ebook. 1st ed. https://oro.open.ac.uk/36374/1/IJTEL40501_Ferguson%2520Jan%25202013.pdf. Michael, D. 2013.A Dynamic topic model of learning analytics research. Ebook. 1st ed. https://ceur-ws.org/Vol-974/lakdatachallenge2013_01.pdf. Mollet, J. 2013.Ethical issues in social science research. Ebook. 1st ed. https://www.aust-neth.net/transmission_proceedings/papers/Mollet.pdf. Thomsons, D. 2014.The Feedback loop. Ebook. 1st ed. https://sptf.info/images/pn1_fbl.pdf. Astrom, K. 2008.Feedback System: An introduction for scientist and engineers. Ebook. 1st ed. https://www.cds.caltech.edu/~murray/books/AM05/pdf/am06-complete_16Sep06.pdf. Brown, L. 2015.Global outsourcing for professional services. Ebook. 1st ed. https://ebusiness.mit.edu/research/papers/204_Gupta_GlobalOutsourcing.pdf.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Tale Of Two Cities In the beginning of A Tale of Two Cities, Dr. Alexander Manette is a prisoner in the Bastille. This was in 1767. From this point it jumps to 1775. At this time Mr. Jarvis Lorry, good friend and banker of Manette, and Lucy Manette, daughter of Manette, are on their way to Paris. In Paris, they stop at the tavern owned by Madame Defarge. There they meet Madame and Monsignor Defarge. Monsignor Defarge took care of Dr. Manette after he was released from the Bastille. He takes Mr. Lorry and Lucy upstairs to where Dr. Manette was staying. Lucy meets her father for the first time. Dr. Manette is very disoriented from being imprisoned so long. The movie then jumps to 1780 in a London courtroom. In the courtroom Charles Darney is being tried for treason. Darney protected Manette on the ship back to London and now looks after Manette. Lucy is called to the stand and questioned. Then Barstad is called to the stand. Barstad is a mercenary who is trying to frame Darney. Darney's lawyer asks his counterpart, Sydney Carton, to stand up and take his wig off. Darney is found not guilty because Carton bears a striking resemblance to Darney. After the trial Darney and Carton meet in a tavern. Carton is extremely rude. It seems that Carton is jealous of Darney and Lucy. Meanwhile, back in Paris the Marquis Ste. Evermonde's carriage runs over and kills a young boy named Jacques. The Marquis Ste. Evermonde is Charles Darney's uncle, but Charles denounces him because of his evil methods. Later on that night, Gaspard, Jacques' father seeks revenge by climbing the wall and murdering the Marquis Ste. Evermonde. Later on in the movie, Gaspard is beheaded. Back in England, Darney tells Dr. Manette that he wants to marry Lucy. It seems that Carton is becoming more and more jealous. It appears that Barstad is dead. The buried a coffin in which people said he is in, but when Jerry Cruncher went grave-robbing to his coffin, all he found were rocks. Darney and Carton then go to the tavern. Barstad arrives in France and meets with Madame and Monsignor Defarge. Carton meets with Lucy Manette and seems to be plotting something. Carton talks with Darney about visiting him and Lucy whenever he wants to. Darney and Lucy get married. After the marriage, Dr. Manette has flashbacks for nine days of when he was in prison. Back in France it appears that there is going to be a Revolution. The French are revolting. First they throw the governor off of the wall, then Madame Defarge beheads him. They search 105 North Tower, which was Dr. Manette's cell. Carton says of France that it was the best of times, it was the worst of times. Darney goes back to France and is imprisoned because he left the country and was an aristocrat. Dr. Manette hears about this and comes to rescue Darney. Soon after, Lucy, their child, and Jarvis Lorry go to Paris. Dr. Manette tells Lucy that Charles is summoned for trial the next day. At the trial, Dr. Manette defends Darney. Darney is freed by the tribunal. French citizens are not happy. Madame Defarge wants every last Ste. Evermonde dead. The citizens go after Darney and bring him to another trial. This time Darney is found guilty because of letters Dr. Manette wrote while imprisoned. These letters said that he wanted every Ste. Evermonde killed. Darney is denounced by Madame Defarge. After the trial, Madame Defarge goes back to where Lucy and her maid, Miss Pross were staying. Miss Pross and Madame Defarge get into a scuffle. Miss Pross accidentally shoots Madame Defarge. On the day when Darney is scheduled to be beheaded, Carton comes to visit Darney. Then Carton drugs Darney and Barstad drags Darney to the carriage. In one carriage was Dr.Manette and Lucy. In the other were Mr.Lorry and Miss Pross. When Darney reaches the carriage, Lucy remembers when Carton told her that he would do anything for her or for her love.Carton pretends he is Darney and ends up giving his life for Lucy. I have mixed feelings on this movie. I did not like the fact that it jumped around from city to city and year to year. I had trouble understanding the first half of the movie. But then, once I realized what was going on, I started to be more content with the film. I liked the movie because it shows how people
Sunday, November 24, 2019
An Edible History Of Humanity Essays - Food And Drink, Agriculture An Edible History Of Humanity 57169051905000For this assignment, first read the excerpts from Tom Standage's An Edible History of Humanity, available on Blackboard. Based on your reading, respond to the following questions. Your responses must be typed, in Calibri or Times New Roman size 12, and be in full sentences. While there is no set length limit, each response should clearly state and explain the answers. This assignment will be graded as Skills Demonstration. Date Due:_________________________________________________ Please attach this sheet to the front of your responses when you submit your assignment! Rubric Formatting: follows directions for assignment, completed thoroughly 5% Responses: Questions answered thoroughly and with reflection/supporting detail as needed. Reflects understanding of the questions and the reading 90% Grammar: clear, fluent language with few/no spelling or grammatical errors 5% The Invention of Farming Food as Technologies What does Standage mean when he says farmed land is as much a technological landscape as a biological one? Does farming spread from one point outward around the world? Where and when does it develop? The Man-Made Nature of Maize Standage highlights several differences between teosinte and maize. Describe those differences and how they benefitted farmers. How did early farmers change a natural process of selection into deliberate cultivation of specific traits? Based on Standage's explanation, do you thing farmed corn is natural? Cereal Innovation Explain how "tough rachis," a mutation undesirable for plant survival, benefitted early humans, and how it became the dominant trait in about 200 years. Why was domestication "bad" for plants like rice and wheat? Use examples in your answer. Explain what Standage describes as a trade-off in human domestication of animals, giving examples. Refer to the map on page 12. Based on what you know about early humans, what do you think explains why maize was domesticated so much later than wheat or rice? Roots of Modernity An Agricultural Mystery State what Standage calls the "most complex, and most important question in human history." Standage argues that farming was not a liberation from the "anxious hand-to-mouth existence of the hunter-gatherer." Do you agree with this assertion? Explain your rationale. The Origins of Farming Explain and analyze at least 3 contributing factors that led to the shift towards farming. Why was it impossible for humans to revert to a nomadic lifestyle? Did Farmers Spread, Or Did Farming Spread? Define demic and cultural diffusion. Describe the archaeological evidence of demic diffusion. Describe the linguistic evidence of cultural diffusion. How did the Khoisan of southern Africa transition from hunting and gathering to domestication? Why does Standage believe farming was a hybrid of both mechanisms? Man, An Agricultural Animal "Is man exploiting maize for his own purposes, or is maize exploiting man?" What does Standage mean by this? How did the transition to agriculture impact the foods we eat today? Focus on the last paragraph of page 27. Do you agree with the position Standage takes on the invention of farming? Explain your rationale, including examples from the text.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
How Disney Markets Nutrition to Children - Research Paper Example Bob Chapek, the President appointed in September 2011, is responsible for the Disney Consumer Products (DCP) throughout the world. Furthermore, he oversees the Disney publishers and online shopping portals which is one of the largest of its kind in the world (Disney, 2012). In 2007, Jennifer Anopolsky, the Vice President of the company, announced that they are making changes in their nutritional products to remove added fats from the diets. Further, she said that it is their first move towards the commitment of a positive change in the long run (Disney, 2012). The paper will, thus, discuss the booming marketing strategies used by the company to promote their nutritional products among retail consumers. Discussion The first initiative Disney has taken is to include two experts: Dr. Keith Ayoob and Dr. Jim Hill. The former is the Associate Clinical Professor of Pediatrics and the later is the Director of Human Nutrition Centre (Federal Trade Commission, 2007). They along with the compa nyÃ¢â¬â¢s experts introduced a dietary guideline that will provide health benefits to the people and children. The guideline included separate standards for main meals such as non-inclusion of snacks or dairy products, limited calories, sodium and sugar, and commitment to using zero grams added fat. Thus, the people around the world started feeling that the company is thinking about their health concerns such as obesity being one of the major problems. Furthermore, the company has implemented significant healthy options in their Disney Parks to attract children and families. Disney Parks and Resorts mostly consist of the Disney food products which are enjoyed by the families visiting those places. Therefore, the kid meals included standard ingredients that benefited the health of the children. Prior to the change, the default kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ meal consisted of fries and soda compulsorily, whereas, at present, the compulsory inclusions will combine vegetables, fruits, juices and many m ore choices of healthier products (Bell & Winig, 2009). Snacks items by large are the most convenient consumable among the food items. However, it has been noticed that snacks have affected many peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s health who availed these items. The growing concern is that snacks items are available in each and every corner of a country due to its conveniences which are being consumed on a regular basis mostly by the office goers. Thus, Disney ensured that they include such varieties in their snacks portfolio which will be healthier and importantly will not increase obesity. Therefore, the company included large varieties of fruit carts and nutritious products such as nuts in their snacks. Furthermore, the company insisted on selling products directly to retailers. They created or designed products in their company but manufactured them through the licensing companies.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
War is Kind by Stephen Crane - Essay Example The poem Ã¢â¬ËWar is KindÃ¢â¬â¢ is the use of sarcasm approach of the author to sway the mind of the readers to be critical of the war showing the reality. This reflects that the author has made a sarcastic approach to define the destructive events of the war, such as; the sarcastic approach of writing the poem creates a sense of confusion and provokes the mind of the readers. The phrases the poems are emotionally heavy to appeal the attention and emotion of readers (Crane). It provides a real picture of human emotions, describing the condition of motherÃ¢â¬â¢s feeling at the time of the death of his son then ending the stanza with Ã¢â¬ËWar is KindÃ¢â¬â¢ provokes the mind of the readers to critically think about consequences of the war (Crane). Crane make use of the figurative language in the poem to create a strong visualization among its readers, such as the author makes use of Ã¢â¬ËMother whose heart hung humble as a button, on the bright splendid shroud of your son, do not weep. War is kindÃ¢â¬ (Crane line 23). This shows that the author shares the pain of the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s heart and at the same time says War is kind (Crane). He makes use of Ã¢â¬Ëheart hung humble as a buttonÃ¢â¬â¢ to explain the feeling of a mother at the time of the death his son. In addition, the author has also related the courage of solider with the animal accordi ng to their glory and characteristics. The second stanza of the poem Ã¢â¬ËgloryÃ¢â¬â¢ is associated with the bird characteristics, as the phrases portray that glory fly, but the glory cannot fly (Crane). This creates a sense that the Ã¢â¬ËgloryÃ¢â¬â¢ is associated with a flying bird, such as a falcon or eagle. The metaphor is to associate the glory with the bird to demonstrate soldiers (Crane). The metaphor in the stanza of the poem relates more solid with the eagle, demonstrating their courage and fearlessness (Crane). The use of the different figures, body organs and number spontaneously creates strong visualization among the mind of the readersÃ (Crane).Ã
Monday, November 18, 2019
Description of four specific ways in which Neuman's HCSM could be used to improve nursing practice - Dissertation Example 242). The HCSM in Nursing Paradigms The field of nursing usually utilizes four paradigms or concepts in its practice, namely, the person or client, environment, health, and nursing itself. These concepts are defined in NeumanÃ¢â¬â¢s model, according to how it is applied in organizing the structure of the profession. As presented by Neuman and Fawcett, the client may be a person, family, group, or community, and there is the need for a clear definition of who are included in the client system and how they relate to other members (as cited in Sitzman & Eichelberger, 2010, p. 79). The client or client system is then viewed in five variables, which are the physiologic, psychologic, sociocultural, developmental, and spiritual aspects. The environment is described as all internal and external factors that surround the client, while health is connected to both wellness and illness. Wellness is the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s system to remain stable at any given time, and illness is the failure to ach ieve homeostasis in the presence of stressors. Nursing, on the other hand, is concerned with assessing the client in response to stressors, and assisting him to cope with them according to the three levels of prevention in order to achieve the optimum degree of wellness.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Imaging Hypoxia in Glioblastoma Multiforme with PET Hypoxia plays a crucial role in the progression of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) promoting angiogenesis, genetic mutations, switch to a more aggressive behaviour and ote important consequences. Many diagnostic methods have been investigated and today PET and MRI appear to be the more attractive for the evaluation of the heterogeneous hypoxia in GBM.(Mendichovszky and Jackson 2011, Vartanian, Singh et al. 2014) Hirata first documented the utility of hypoxic tracers ([18F]FMISO in this study) in patients with differentiating GBM from lower grade gliomas based on the level of tumour hypoxia.(Hirata, Terasaka et al. 2012) Hypoxia assessment by PET imaging seems to provide complementary information to MRI within the complex relationship existing between hypoxia and angiogenesis in GBM. This was confirmed in a study of Swanson et al, where the authors documented a strong correlation between the hypoxic burden, determined with [18F]FMISO, and altered vasculature documented on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MRI sequences.(Swanson, Chakraborty et al. 2009) As for other tumours, the prognostic capability of [18F]FMISO has been confirmed also in GBM, in a study evaluating the correlation between hypoxic volume, intensity of hypoxia an survival in 22 patients with GBM who underwent PET scan before biopsy or between resection and radiation therapy (RT).(Spence, Muzi et al. 2008) The heterogeneous distribution of hypoxia within GBM cannot be fully investigated by [18F]FMISO PET imaging, but the tumourÃ¢â¬âblood ratio provide acceptable data on the different levels of hypoxia within the tumour.(Padhani, Krohn et al. 2007) [18F]FAZA is another radiotracer tracer, which has showed promising results. The biggest study ever published, evaluating the utility of [18F]FAZA in 50 patients with different types of tumours, documented increased uptake of the tracer in all gliomas, with a tumour-to-background (T/B) ratio range of 1.9-15.6, which is higher compared to that of [18F]FMISO.(Postema, McEwan et al. 2009) However, as already said most of literature on the use of [18F]FAZA in the brain is based in preclinical setting (see Tab.X) According to the group of Wiebe, one important point in favour of [18F]FAZA for the evaluation of hypoxia in brain tumours is the absence of uptake in normal brain tissue, while [18F]FMISO shows, although limited, non-specific uptake in the brain.(Wiebe 2004) Recently, also Belloli and colleagues investigated the combined use of [18F]FAZA and [18F]FDG PET and MRI to follow the biological modification of specific line of glioma cells during the tumour progression in animal models of GBM (rats with implanted glioma F98 cells). The authors observed that [18F]FAZA and [18F]FDG were taken up respectively in the core and in external areas of the tumoyr, with partial overlap and remodelling during disease progression, suggesting that necrotic regions, defined on the basis of [18F]FDG uptake reduction, may include hypoxic clusters of vital tumour tissue identified with 18F]FAZA.(Belloli, Brioschi et al. 2013) BOLD-MRI is an advance MRI technique, particulary suitable for the evaluation of hypoxia, which evaluate the changes in oxygen concentration and ratio between oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin within vessels. In contrast to oxyhaemoglobin, deoxyhaemoglobin is paramagnetic and determines an increase of transverse relaxation rate (R2*) of water in blood and surrounding tissues.(Mendichovszky and Jackson 2011) Unfortunately BOLD-MRI signal is sensible also to other tissue factors, such as blood flow, carbon dioxide tension, haematocrit, pH. Decoupling the effects of flow from deoxyhaemoglobin and static components it is essential to measure R2* and be obtained using multi-echo GRE sequences.(Padhani, Krohn et al. 2007) T1-weighted oxygen-enhanced MRI (OE-MRI) has been proposed as an alternative imaging technique for the evaluation of hypoxia.(Zaharchuk, Busse et al. 2006) Dissolved oxygen in blood and plasma influences MRI signal by increasing the longitudinal relaxation rate of protons (R1). OE-MRI has already been employed in the evaluation of oxygen in healthy tissues and in tumours, but not in the evaluation of hypoxia in GBM, except in a preclinical study by Linnik et al. (Linnik, Scott et al. 2014) In an animal study, Wu et al. used a mechanically ventilation with 100% oxygen at the rate of 8 l/min to investigate hypoxia in brain of rats and showed close agreement between R2* and R1 changes in white and grey matter in response to oxygen inhalation.(Wu, Gao et al. 2012) In the study of Wu and colleagues, the T1 values decreased prominently in the cortical grey matter but also, with a lower extent, in the subcortical gray matter and in white matter, where the decrease was the least significant. Instead the T2 values showed an increase in response to the oxygen inhalation in all the regions examined in the following order: white matter>subcortical gray matter>cortical gray matter. Similarly, the T2* values increased with more evident change in the cortical gray matte and white matter and with a less extent in subcortical gray matter.(Wu, Gao et al. 2012) These observations support the use of oxygen-enhanced imaging as a biomarker for tumour oxygenation, although the relationship between the signal changes resulting from variations in dissolved oxygen pressure and true tumour hypoxaemia remain to be elucidated. DCE-MRI, using contrast agents of low molecular weight, has been proposed as an additional MRI method for identification and quantification of hypoxia in some types of tumour and some authors successfully demonstrated a correlation between perfusion parameters to oxygen tension. (Ceelen, Smeets et al. 2006) DCE-MRI parameters have been demonstrated also to indicate preoperatively areas with high hypoxia in glioma patients.In particularly Jensen et al. demonstrated that capillary transit time (tc) correlated with HIF-1 expression and VEGF expression in the histopathological examination of corresponding of active tumour regions. Other parameters, blood volume (Vb), capillary heterogeneity (a-1) and kep (washout rate) also showed a correlation with biomarkers of hypoxia.(Jensen, Mumert et al. 2014) OÃ¢â¬â¢ Connor, in a study evaluating ten patients with solid tumours, proposed that DCE may provide complementary information to OE-MRI regarding the tumour microenvironment, estimating lo cal perfusion and extracellularÃ¢â¬âextravascular volume,(OConnor, Naish et al. 2009) Subsequently, Linnik et al. validated the measurement of hypoxia validated OE-MRI using a murine glioma xenograft with histopathological confirmation. The study involved 5 patients, who underwent the same imaging protocol of the rats: OE-MRI and DCE-MRI and histological confirmation with reduced pimonidazole adducts and CD31 staining. Furthermore, the area under the curve (AUC) was also calculated for the R1 curve for OE-MRI and the gadolinium concentration curve for DCE-MRI. Whereas DCE-MRI did not relate to hypoxia in the xenograft model, the authors found a strong correlation between estimation of hypoxia by means OE-MRI and histology results, supporting further research to validate also the utility of OE-MRI in the evaluation of response to therapy and prediction of prognosis (Fig.).(Linnik, Scott et al. 2014) DWI-MRI instead has been used to clarify the mechanism of action of bevacizumab role, scanning patients with recurrent GBM before and after treatment with bevacizumab.(Rieger, Bahr et al. 2010) The mechanism of action of bevacizumab is still matter of debate. It is thought to produce damage to the endothelial cells, decreasing transport of nutrients and oxygen to the tumour cells,(Field, Jordan et al. 2014) but recently, it has been postulated an alternative theory: antiangiogenic therapy could stimulate a Ã¢â¬Å"vascular normalizationÃ¢â¬ , which would allow improved chemotherapy delivery and radiation effects through enhanced oxygen delivery.(Jain 2005) The study showed that bevacizumab induced stroke-like lesions with diffusion restriction and corresponding ADC decrease in 13 out of 18 patients enrolled in the study. A biopsy, performed in ADC-decreased lesion in one patient, demonstrated and nuclear hypoxia with HIF-1Ã ± up-regulation atypical necrosis but no tumour recurrence , supporting the hypothesis that bevacizumab-increases hypoxia in the tumour bed, expecially in case of prolonged treatment. Furthermore the imaging analysis revealed that regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) were decreased in responders with diffusion restricted lesions.(Rieger, Bahr et al. 2010) Recently the effect of anti-angiogenic therapy has been investigated by a new technique, called vessel architectural imaging (VAI) which analyses the temporal shift in the MR signal estimating the vessel calibre and provides additional information about the microcirculation and oxygen saturation levels. From preliminary investigations, VAI seems to be a reliable MRI method to demonstrate the effect of anti-angiogenic therapy.(Emblem, Mouridsen et al. 2013) Other authors suggested AVOL, a measure of arteriovenous overlap (voxels with both arteriosus and venous perfusion characteristics), as index of abnormal tumour microvasculature and as indicator o f bevacizumab therapy efficacy.(LaViolette, Cohen et al. 2013) Barajas and colleagues (Barajas, Phillips et al. 2012) investigated histopathological and physiologic MRI features using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic susceptibilityÃ¢â¬âweighted, and contrast enhanced perfusion imaging (DSC). Image-guided tissue specimens were taken from contrast enhanced (CE) and non-enhancing (NE) regions in GBM (93 CE and 26 NE regions from 51 patients with newly diagnosed GBM). The authors analysed variables of anatomic, imaging, and histopathological features (tumour score, cell density, proliferation, architectural disruption, hypoxia, and microvascular hyperplasia). Tissue samples from CE regions were found to have increased tumour score, cellular density, proliferation, and architectural disruption compared with NE regions.(Barajas, Phillips et al. 2012) MRI in the evaluation of perfusion Perfusion measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) has been proposed as a method for identifying angiogenically active tumours. Increased angiogenesis in high-grade gliomas is correlated with higher cerebral blood volume (CBV) after contrast administration with dynamic MRI, relative to contralateral normal white matter rCBF and tumour aggressiveness. (Provenzale, York et al. 2006, Gruner, Paamand et al. 2012) Also microvascular density (MVD) of tumour tissue has been shown to relate to tumour behaviour and prognosis. Furthermore it has been demonstrated that abnormalities in contrast agent recirculation provide independent information concerning the microcirculation and may be of value as surrogate markers in trials of antiangiogenic therapy.(Alan Jackson 2002) Early changes of rCBV, evaluated by MRI before and at weeks 1-2 and 3-4 during radiotherapy, can indicate response to treatment and correlate with survival [Cao]. Also Galban investigated the predictive impact of MRI in this setting, suggesting the use of voxel-by-voxel parametric response maps at 3 weeks after radiotherapy to predict overall survival.(Galban, Chenevert et al. 2009) Another MRI technique which has shown promises in the assessment of the tumour microvascular environment is susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), which aims to underline the susceptibility differences between tissues. Liu et al. demonstrated that R2*values are significantly different between high-grade gliomas, low-grade gliomas, postulating that these differences may be related to the different content of deoxyhaemoglobin.(Liu, Liao et al. 2014)
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are often a number of characteristics that can be used to describe characters through out literature. The classic mythological hero may be described as having the tragic Greek heroic personality. The tragic Greek heroic personality contains characteristics such as excellence (arÃ ªte), pride (hubris), blind recklessness (ate), and disastrous retribution (nemesis). Though most mythological heroes contain these qualities, Sophocles developed his own heroic personality. The sophoclean tragic hero is Ã¢â¬Å"one whose rigid and courageous loyalty to particular principles invites a disastrous fateÃ¢â¬ (Antigone Pg.14). Creon acting a classical tragic as well as Antigone, a sophoclean tragic heroes, both personify their personalities through their actions. Ã Ã ...
Sunday, November 10, 2019
James Kain wrote the essay Ã¢â¬Å"Why LiteratureÃ¢â¬ and from reading that, I got the various opinions about Literature from a Literature professorÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view. I really liked the quote Ã¢â¬Å"Students always ask why they have to read this stuff. I understand their position; they have been brought up in a culture that values eternal youth in a material worldÃ¢â¬ (Kain). Throughout my years in school, I have never heard any teacher or professor that understands our pains and suffering of reading, analyzing and learning Literature. Literature class is not my best choice of a class but Prof. Kain made Literature fun and exciting for me.I am so happy that I got the chance to take his Literature class because he really made it fun for us. In the way that I see it, movies, stories and poems are all the same. One is on the screen and the other two are on paper. And they both have the same motive to express feelings, stories and problems. Throughout the essay by Mr. Kain, he wrote many things that really stood out to me. Ã¢â¬Å"The stuff of poetry, story and drama, written by a master of the language, helps us explore our own lives and destiniesÃ¢â¬ (Kain). This quote really made me think about all of the wonderful works of words that we have read in this class.What this quote means is that certain stories, poems and types of drama makes me think of our own lives and what our dreams are. Another quote that really stood out to me is Ã¢â¬Å"The works of poets and storytellers differ from other writings because they expose questions, emotions, doubts and fears; they illuminate the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s inner life, and they vitalize our language Ã¢â¬â that is, they give life and meaning to words we normally take for grantedÃ¢â¬ (Kain). When I read this, it reminded me of the poem that we read by Theodore Roethke My PapaÃ¢â¬â¢s Waltz. In that poem, the ordinary words that we would be using in our daily lives really came to life.That poem had a lot of i nner emotions from the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s personal life since it was about his father who he wished had a better relationship with. The third and final quote from this that I really liked was: Ã¢â¬Å"Writers of literature help us do this. They give us the story of their own struggle with this noisy, marvelous, frustrating God-blessed troublesome world. They show us views of life that we could never experience by ourselvesÃ¢â¬ (Kain). Poets and authors give us another look on life with their works. We may have our own issues and problems but no everyone has the same problems as us.The problems that the poets and authors give us can be so much worse than what we are facing. Always remember that everyone has their own issues and problems and they are not the same as you. In my earlier paragraphs, I mentioned the poem by Theodore Roethke My PapaÃ¢â¬â¢s Waltz. I really liked this poem a lot because it was the type of poem that really stood out to you and you would never forget it. By rea ding the title alone, you would think that the poem would be a nice happy one but after the first stanza, that all changes. The words in that poem were not used in the ordinary way that we would use them in our daily lives.The one line from the poem: You beat time on my head with a palm caked hard by dirt, Then waltzed me off to bed still clinging to your shirt makes you think of the use of words that are in this stanza and what they mean in the context of the sentence. The short stories section of this class was not my best. I like to read stories but analyzing is not something that I can do at the top of my head. I really have to think about the story, plot and characters really deeply in order to finally come up with a conclusion on the analysis of the whole story. The one story that really got to me is The Black Cat by Edgar Allen Poe.This was the type of story that was so unreal and very disturbing. After reading the part about when the cat was making the noise inside the wall even though his owner killed him; it really sent chills down my spine. This is the type of story you can easily tell to people on Halloween and they would really spooked out. This type of story really let the emotions out to the reader. That is what I like about when I read certain stories and poems; I want the author or poet to expose emotions in the words so I can feel the same way as the author or poet feels.I am pretty sure that for everyone in the class, the movie The Dead PoetÃ¢â¬â¢s Society was by far the best thing that we have done in this class. The movie did a good job in expressing the types of freedom, wishes and desires for each of the characters. The tragic ending for one of the main characters Neal Perry was definitely an eye opening for everyone. I am sure that no one really expected that to happen. Neal had a lot of pressure from his father; going to a good school, getting the highest grades than anyone else and getting into Yale or Harvard. Neal wanted to be a f ree bird but it was his Dad that was holding him back.His main passion was acting and he still went on with it even though he knew of the consequences that would follow. This type of emotion made me think of me because I know I have a lot of pressure from my parents especially since I am a Nursing major and after getting my degree here at Neumann University, they want me to get my Masters and become a Nurse Practitioner. I feel like all students in high school and college get a lot of pressure from their parents and the main reason for that is that their parents love them and want what is best for them.This was the type of drama that really expressed emotions of every one of the characters and that is whole main idea of Literature. In conclusion, I really liked this Literature class and I am really happy that I got the chance to take it with Prof. James Kain. He really knows what Literature is and he really makes it fun for us students. Literature is not that bad; you can like many stories and poems if you like movies because basically movies are like the same as stories and poems. The only difference is that movies are on the screen, stories and poems are on paper.
Friday, November 8, 2019
The Progressive Conservatives for the Ontario Government essays It is, of course, important to vote but quite frankly all of the parties have large disadvantages and are being lead by people who are clearly incompetent. The Liberals Dalton McGinty often seems uncomfortable with the public and many of his policies seem ill conceived with little input from himself. Howard Hampton of the NDP seems to have some popular notions at face value but some tax payers are concerned that an NDP government would just create higher levels of debt and weaken our economic standing. The Ernie Eves conservative government has gone from problem to problem, putting out political fires on an on going basis, while always saying the wrong things and offending people. The Progressive Conservative government has shown, from their run with Ernie Eves, Mike Harris and others that they have trouble choosing the right person to represent them. However, in my opinion, the PC party itself, stands for and believes in the things that I feel are right like supporting business, re ducing welfare programs for those who dont need them, and reducing government interference. For these reasons, the progressive conservative government would be the party I would vote for. The Conservatives support businesses while the other parties place unfair burdens on them (raising minimum wage, taxing them much more). The other parties seem to keep forgetting that business is what keeps everything running because they are too busy thinking that businesses are out to take all the money they can. They believe that as the rich businesses get richer, the poor will get poorer. This is partly true, there are always going to be poorer people and the wealthier business people, but it works well - the greedy businesses make the jobs, the jobs that the lower or middle class people need to make a living. Instead of trying to hurt business, the Conservative party fully supports business, therefore supporting the economy, which even...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
World Lit Essay Example World Lit Essay World Lit Essay The discrepancy in appearance and reality is an important theme in several of the texts we have read. Discuss this theme as it is illustrated in two of the following works of literature: The Canterbury Tales; Hamlet (the play); A Simple Heart; The Death of Ivan Ilych. Incorporate some information about how each text reflects the characteristics of its literary period. Discrepancy in appearance and reality is one theme that is well illustrated in both books of Hamlet a simple heart and even in the literature entitled The Death of Ivan Ilych. IvanÃ Ã Ilyich as a person who want to be well up especially in the social ladder does all the struggle he could, only to realize he had to accept the true reality of life since death was a must and not optional. The gift of all his agony and struggle to make life more comfortable was a suffering cessation. The Ilyichs breakthrough turns out to be freedom that emerges with truth and realizes at the end that he has lived a life full of falsity and enables him to have a just very brief moment to show unselfish love to his children and wife since he had lived such a bad life of not having compassion to his deer wife and equally to his own child. Ã Ivan Ilyich had to accept the reality in life and regret about the life he had been living and recognizes that his only son was the one who had the truth humanity and lived the way life was supposed to be lived. From the book of a simple life, FelicitÃ © being such a royal girl who was not selfish to give her love finds her life not as good as she opted. Her husband to be saw her not being fit enough to be associated to him as his wife and marries another girl. She dies with no children and even without her own property. The theme of discrepancy in appearance and reality is thus well illustrated since this girl being such good to anybody and even willing to give her love to anyone finds no appreciation from any of them up to the time of her death. Compare and contrast one Romantic poem with the Modernist poem The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. (The Romantic poets we have read are Wordsworth, Whitman, and Dickinson.) Remember that a successful comparison/contrast thesis is more than a statement that the two texts are both alike and different. You should state some insightful conclusion that can be arrived at through reading the texts side by side. The comparisonÃ between the two works of literature is that they are both dramatic monologues with issues concerningÃ about romance and nature. Ã In both poems, the authors does not see any important thing that can make one to be more such happy and contented with life since the life seem to be having a lot of misery. Both authors in their literature seem to express their feelings and relation with space and time to be unappealing and thus they are unhappy with the situation. The authors further more offers prolonged interrogatives which are in a series form for consequences which are unanswered or taken action on. The language used in both poems and imagery are enacted with intensity that brings out the dramas to be with mental conflict. The conflict between these two poems is that in the poem The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock the rhyme scheme is irregular even though not randomly where as in the poem of Wordsworth the rhyme is regular even though the dialect used is uncommon. The poem The World is Too Much with us also illustrates about industrial revolution of England whereas the poem of Prufrock is illustrates consciousness of a person who is modern and neurotic. Furthermore the poem of Prufrock is doneÃ Ã in such a way to express transitional links to be psychological and illogicalÃ Ã where as in the words worth poem is done in a way that express his anger about nature.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Business Law - Essay Example The current generations of businesses have discovered secrets to achieving their goals, growing their organizations and keeping competition at bay. While growth and profit earning strategies were the main focus for many businesses in the past, the current trend is different. Businesses are targeting more than just earning high incomes and increasing their profits. They have discovered that they can achieve their visions and missions through confronting the existing social and environmental challenges, allowing the profit earning motive to be a secondary factor.Therefore, organizations are building their market share and growing their revenues through corporate social responsibility innovation. This entails innovating and applying powerful ways of addressing the existing social and environmental challenges (Hollender and Bill, 159). However, the application of social responsibility innovation to act as a marketing strategy, without championing for any social and environmental benefit, is harmful to an organizations brand. This is because; consumers have become more enlightened and aware of the application of charity and good-deeds as a marketing ploy by organizations. Therefore, the current generation of the consumer goes beyond looking at the billions pumped into the corporate citizenship programs, to look at the sustainability and the benefits obtainable by the society. There are various innovative corporate social responsibility techniques that are applied by organizations to achieve the sustainability of corporate citizenship.... This is vital to maintain strong drivers of the organization, who steers it towards its targets (Hollender and Bill, 70). Microsoft Corporation history, vision and mission This is a multinational corporation with its origin in the USA, dealing with a variety of products and services related to computers and computing (Harnick, n.p.). The company is ranked as the largest software maker in the world, based on software revenue collection, and the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most valuable company. In the Ã¢â¬Å"CRÃ¢â¬â¢s 100 Best Corporate Citizens 2012Ã¢â¬ (CR100), which gives the rank of the top 100 highly ranked socially responsible organizations, Microsoft Corporation was ranked as the third best (Harnick, n.p.). The company was founded in 1975 to develop interpreters for the then Altair 8800 microcomputer (Harnick, n.p.). However, the company eventually diversified into manufacturing into personal computer operating systems and software. According to the current standings, the company has d ominated the field of computer operating systems, office suite and online visual communication media (Harnick, n.p.). The mission of the company is to provided professional and value added services in the technology industry, with a high customer service and the interest of the customers in mind. Its vision is to build a customer service-based professional services consulting company, which will specialize in information technology consulting (Harnick, n.p.). Microsoft Corporation stakeholder analysis Stakeholders refer to the people or entities that are party to or affected in one way or the other by the operations of an organization. Microsoft Corporation has the founder,
Friday, November 1, 2019
The Management and the Competitors of Sainsbury's Company - Term Paper Example According to surveys, SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s is one of the largely respected brands in the whole of Britain. Two young people- Mary Ann Staples and John James Sainsbury started the company in 1869. Their business was an instant success and more and more branches were added to their repertoire. Their business was based on the model of offering quality products at low prices. The company led much importance on the quality of products and organized thorough training of their staffs. In 1971, the company changed its name by eliminating the initial J and subsequently in 1973, it became a public company. Increase in competition led the company to open up diversified stores consisting of grocery items and other retail products. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s has cemented its position as a market leader by acquiring other chain stores and entering into newer markets like USA and Scotland. The introduction of self-label products also helped to increase the profitability of the corporation (J Sainsbury plc, n .d.). SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s have succeeded in maintaining its position when all other family-owned businesses have fallen through with its dedicated management and innovative techniques. This augurs well for the prospect of the company. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s have entered the field of retail banking as well.Ã SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s have chartered into international markets from its base in Britain. Therefore, it faces competition from different companies in the countries they operate. In the supermarket category in the UK, it faces tough competition from Tesco, Asda, and Safeway. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s operate in the US by holding the ShawÃ¢â¬â¢s retail chain. It operates in New England in the US and the main competitors there are AholdÃ¢â¬â¢s stop & shop and HanfordÃ¢â¬â¢s stop & save.
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Teaching Adults with Autism - Essay Example 4. critical and self-critical likeness on the outcome of points 1-3 and building decisions for the next cycle of action research proposal, i.e. revising the sketch, followed by action, scrutiny and mirror image, etc. A discussion of the draft submissions from members of the Expert Groups, for the purpose of bringing together the various themes of the Review, in consideration of the questions offered by the Lay Group. Technical action research proposal for teaching adults with autism aims to get better efficacy of educational or executive practice. The practitioners are co-opted and depend deeply on the researcher as a catalyst. Practical action research proposal, in addition to efficacy, aims at the practitioners' accepting and professional growth. Being a researcher my role is Socratic and to encourage practical thought and self-reflection on the part of the practitioners. To integrate the proposed study of perception-movement-action, as a unity, in the teaching programmes at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels in PESLS and Psychology and other related departments with autism in the [Name of Institution]. Assisted by the outer ... Research Strategies Assisted by the outer visitors, the Review Members tasked with developing a broad, forward-looking policy for teaching adults with autism research in the UK. It will be useful to move toward this through classification of - Strategic research questions building on the Review's earlier work integrating perspectives of researcher and users - Appropriate (and inappropriate) methodologies to address those questions Methodologies 1. I have established three Expert Subgroups to cover the areas of: - Epidemiology and case definition for teaching adults - Physiology and infections with autism - Psychology and behaviour of adults during study 2. The Subgroups reported to the overall Chairman of the Review through the Subgroup chairmen. Information shared across the Subgroups, the steering group and to officers, as well as to the Students Counsel Group. The work of the group was otherwise being confidential. 3. The Lay Group have observers on the Expert Subgroups. The Lay members roles are to Advise on effective ways for lay and parental participation in the review; Throw in to the work of the Expert Subgroups, particularly through identifying coherent sets of questions to be put to the my researchers team; Advise on effective reporting and dissemination of the review so that it can address the needs of both the Department of teachers and the wider student counsels. 4. Department Head Office was supporting the work of the group in particular its meetings, which was minuted in brief. 5. The concerned department had also established an e-mail list for communications and a list of information resources. 6. School Head Office was responsible for communicating the work and findings of my
Monday, October 28, 2019
The Russian Civil War Essay The Russian Civil War remains one of the more brutal wars in RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s history. Considering the brutal combat that the Russian army faced in the horrid conditions of World War One and World War Two, to refer to the Russian Civil War as a more brutal endeavor is a grand claim; however, when one considers the cost of lives and the tearing apart of the homeland, it is not a stretch to lay that claim on the shoulders of the Civil War. What complicates the Bolshevik involvement in the Russian Civil War is the fact that the Bolsheviks prescribed to a state central authoritarian system of government. In other words, the Bolsheviks believed that the state was the center of all authority and that it should be comprised of one political party. In short, the Bolsheviks were fighting for totalitarianism. Needless to say, this does not paint a picture of a faction that had universal appeal among the public. In order to centralize any problems with competing political factions, the Bolsheviks outlawed other political parties. Such an action shows that there was possible belief that perhaps the Bolsheviks ability to maintain popularity in the hearts and minds of the population was on shaky ground. By firmly establishing an authoritarian rule, the Bolsheviks were Ã¢â¬ËsurvivingÃ¢â¬â¢ as opposed to winning both on the battlefield and in the court of public opinion. Therein lays the central problem: if the Bolsheviks were to win the Civil War, they would need to defeat the huge volume of people in the nation who were greatly opposed to the system of government that the Bolsheviks represented. In winning, the defeated factions would have to be integrated into the Russian society and, in some cases, subjugated. Is this really a win or is it the case of the Bolsheviks using military force to impose their rule on a society that did not want them. To a certain degree, the Bolshevik victory was a matter of the party surviving (it would have been dissolved in the face of a loss in the same manner the opposition parties were dissolved by the Bolsheviks) and the ability to rule was performed by subjugating all opposition and suppressing any pretext of freedom or democratic socialism. (Keep in mind, socialism could have been instituted without totalitarian authoritarianism, but the militaristic approach was the one preferred by the Bolsheviks) When examining the Soviet Union and its place in history, one needs to ask the question as to what was the Soviet UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy. To a great extent, the Soviet Union was a colossal failure that squandered the minds and the will of a great people. The Soviet Union was little more than a military-industrial complex that invaded, conquered and occupied nations that despised being under the Soviet sphere of influence. Furthermore, the concept of the utopian socialist fantasyland was exactly that, a grim fairy tale fantasy where over sixty-million people living in nations that prescribed to the philosophy of communism died from famine. When it comes to the BolshevikÃ¢â¬â¢s success in the Russian Civil war, what was it that the BolshevikÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplished other than the establishment of a failed military-industrial complex state? To that degree, winning the Russian Civil War was hardly a win in the sense of, say, a former colony winning independence. Ultimately, the survival of the Bolsheviks after the Russian Civil war is hardly celebratory as the eventual establishment of the Stalin regime and the advent of the long and hard Cold War hangs a dark cloud over any perceived victory the Bolsheviks could claim.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
The purpose of this experiment is to explore the hardness of the water on campus. Hard water has been a problem for hundreds of years. One of the earliest references to the hardness or softness of water is in Hippocrates discourse on water quality in Fifth century B.C. Hard water causes many problems in both in the household and in the industrial world. One of the largest problems with hard water is that it tends to leave a residue when it evaporates. Aside from being aesthetically unpleasing to look at, the build up of hard water residue can result in the clogging of valves, drains and piping. This build up is merely the accumulation of the minerals dissolved in natural water and is commonly called scale. Other than clogging plumbing, the build up of scale poses a large problem in the industrial world. Many things that are heated are often cooled by water running thru piping. The build up of scale in these pipes can greatly reduce the amount of heat the cooling unit can draw away from the source it is trying to heat. This poses a potentially dangerous situation. The build up of excess heat can do a lot of damage; boilers can explode, containers can melt etc. On the flip side of the coin, a build up of scale on an object being heated, a kettle for example, can greatly reduce the heat efficiency of the kettle. Because of this, it takes much more energy to heat the kettle to the necessary temperature. In the industrial world, this could amount to large sums of money being thrown into wasted heat. In addition to clogging plumbing and reducing heating efficiency, the build up of hard water also adversely affects the efficiency of many soaps and cleansers. The reason for this is because hard water contains many divalent or sometimes even polyvalent ions. These ions react with the soap and although they do not form precipitates, they prevent the soap from doing it's job. When the polyvalent ions react with the soap, they form an insoluble soap scum. This is once again quite unpleasing to look at and stains many surfaces. The sole reason for all these problems arising from hard water is because hard water tends to have higher than normal concentrations of these minerals, and hence it leaves a considerable amount more residue than normal water. The concentration of these minerals is what is known as the water's Total Dissolved Solids or TDS for short. This is merely a way of expressing how many particles are dissolved in water. The TDS vary from waters of different sources, however they are present in at least some quantity in all
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Robert Frost's "After Apple-Picking" In the poem Ã¢â¬Å"After Apple-PickingÃ¢â¬ , Robert Frost has cleverly disguised many symbols and allusions to enhance the meaning of the poem. One must understand the parallel to understand the central theme of the poem. The apple mentioned in the poem could be connected to the forbidden fruit from the Garden of Eden. It essentially is the beginning of everything earthly and heavenly, therefore repelling death. To understand the complete meaning of FrostÃ¢â¬â¢s poem one needs to be aware that for something to be dead, it must have once had life. Life and death are common themes in poetry, but this poem focuses on what is in between, lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s missed experiences and the regret that the speaker is left with. Regret is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a feeling of disappointment or distress about something that one wishes could be differentÃ¢â¬ (www.dictionary.com). While there is no doubt that the speaker in this poem has had a very productive and worthwhile life, one gets the impression that there is still an empty feeling in his life, of which he can do nothing about. In lines 3-6, he reflectively states, Ã¢â¬Å"And thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a barrel that I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t fill beside it, and there may be two or three apples I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t pick upon some boughÃ¢â¬ . Here, it is necessary to expand that idea the idea of the apples as a metaphor for life, and say that they also represent missed life experiences. As the speaker looks back on his life, he sees unfinished tasks, and thus he feels regret. It is important to note though, that he accepts the fact that he can do nothing about these unfinished tasks, and he is ready to move to a new and final stage in his life as he acknowledges that he Ã¢â¬Å"is don e with apple-picking nowÃ¢â¬ (6). The reason for the reflection is evident when the speaker says, Ã¢â¬Å"I cannot rub the strangeness from my sight I got from looking through a pane of glass I skimmed this morning from the drinking trough and held against the world of hoary grassÃ¢â¬ (9-10). From this it seems as though the speaker has caught a glimpse of his reflection in the drinking trough and has noticed that the reflection was or gray with age. It appears as though the speaker does not merely see himself in the waterÃ¢â¬â¢s reflection though; he also visualizes past visions and memories from his life. Further on in the poem, the speaker says, Ã¢â¬Å"There were ten thousand thousand fruit to touch, Cherish in han... ... or perhaps even to the Ã¢â¬Å"cellarÃ¢â¬ (a metaphor for Hell). By the end of the poem, both the speaker and the reader have come to a general acceptance regarding the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s looming death. It therefore comes as a bit of a shock when the speaker says, Ã¢â¬Å"Were he not gone, the woodchuck could say whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s like his long sleep, as I describe its coming on, or just some human sleepÃ¢â¬ . The metaphorical meaning of sleep in this poem has been previously established, however, a new definition surfaces as a result of this statement. Frost has just written of two different types of sleepÃ¢â¬âis it possible that he is talking about two different states of death? In searching for the significance of this statement, it is necessary to return to the apple and its representation of both life and death. The reader, as well as the speaker, is not sure if he is really dying or whether he has simply ceased feeling and experiencing life, thus causing the feelings of regret. It is interesting, though purely speculative, to note that i n the year that Frost wrote this poem, he would be turning forty years old. One must wonder whether Frost was looking back on his own life thus far with some sort of regret. Robert Frost's "After Apple-Picking" Essay -- Robert Frost Apple Picki Robert Frost's "After Apple-Picking" In the poem Ã¢â¬Å"After Apple-PickingÃ¢â¬ , Robert Frost has cleverly disguised many symbols and allusions to enhance the meaning of the poem. One must understand the parallel to understand the central theme of the poem. The apple mentioned in the poem could be connected to the forbidden fruit from the Garden of Eden. It essentially is the beginning of everything earthly and heavenly, therefore repelling death. To understand the complete meaning of FrostÃ¢â¬â¢s poem one needs to be aware that for something to be dead, it must have once had life. Life and death are common themes in poetry, but this poem focuses on what is in between, lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s missed experiences and the regret that the speaker is left with. Regret is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a feeling of disappointment or distress about something that one wishes could be differentÃ¢â¬ (www.dictionary.com). While there is no doubt that the speaker in this poem has had a very productive and worthwhile life, one gets the impression that there is still an empty feeling in his life, of which he can do nothing about. In lines 3-6, he reflectively states, Ã¢â¬Å"And thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a barrel that I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t fill beside it, and there may be two or three apples I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t pick upon some boughÃ¢â¬ . Here, it is necessary to expand that idea the idea of the apples as a metaphor for life, and say that they also represent missed life experiences. As the speaker looks back on his life, he sees unfinished tasks, and thus he feels regret. It is important to note though, that he accepts the fact that he can do nothing about these unfinished tasks, and he is ready to move to a new and final stage in his life as he acknowledges that he Ã¢â¬Å"is don e with apple-picking nowÃ¢â¬ (6). The reason for the reflection is evident when the speaker says, Ã¢â¬Å"I cannot rub the strangeness from my sight I got from looking through a pane of glass I skimmed this morning from the drinking trough and held against the world of hoary grassÃ¢â¬ (9-10). From this it seems as though the speaker has caught a glimpse of his reflection in the drinking trough and has noticed that the reflection was or gray with age. It appears as though the speaker does not merely see himself in the waterÃ¢â¬â¢s reflection though; he also visualizes past visions and memories from his life. Further on in the poem, the speaker says, Ã¢â¬Å"There were ten thousand thousand fruit to touch, Cherish in han... ... or perhaps even to the Ã¢â¬Å"cellarÃ¢â¬ (a metaphor for Hell). By the end of the poem, both the speaker and the reader have come to a general acceptance regarding the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s looming death. It therefore comes as a bit of a shock when the speaker says, Ã¢â¬Å"Were he not gone, the woodchuck could say whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s like his long sleep, as I describe its coming on, or just some human sleepÃ¢â¬ . The metaphorical meaning of sleep in this poem has been previously established, however, a new definition surfaces as a result of this statement. Frost has just written of two different types of sleepÃ¢â¬âis it possible that he is talking about two different states of death? In searching for the significance of this statement, it is necessary to return to the apple and its representation of both life and death. The reader, as well as the speaker, is not sure if he is really dying or whether he has simply ceased feeling and experiencing life, thus causing the feelings of regret. It is interesting, though purely speculative, to note that i n the year that Frost wrote this poem, he would be turning forty years old. One must wonder whether Frost was looking back on his own life thus far with some sort of regret.